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So much great information was shared last week by Rose Marie Straeter, MA, RLC, IBCLC, Breastfeeding – Nature’s Best. If you missed it, the recording is located on the event page. The references for this webinar are listed below.

To enable mothers to establish and sustain exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, WHO and UNICEF recommend:

  • Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of life
  • Exclusive breastfeeding – that is the infant only receives breast milk without any additional food or drink, not even water
  • Breastfeeding on demand – that is as often as the child wants, day and night
  • No use of bottles, teats or pacifiers

References:  Breastfeeding – Nature’s Best

World Health Organization Exclusive breastfeeding.

American Pregnancy Association, Promoting Pregnancy Wellness.

Ball, T. M., & Wright, A. L. (1999). Health Care Costs of Formula-Feeding in the First Year of Life. Pediatrics, 103, 870-876.

Chuang, C., Chang, P., Chen, Y., Hsieh, W., Hurng, B., Lin, S., & Chen, P. (2010, April). Maternal return to work and breastfeeding: A population-based cohort study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47 (4), 461-474.

Dick, M. J., Evans, M. L., Arthurs, J. B., Barnes, J. K., Caldwell, R. S., Hutchins, S. S., & Johnson, L. K. (2002). Predicting early breastfeeding attrition. Journal of Human Lactation, 18 (21), 21-28. doi: 10.1177/089033440201800104

Economic Research Service (ERS), U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2001). The Economic Benefits of Breastfeeding: A Review and Analysis (13). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Fairbrother, N., & Stanger-Ross, I. (2010). Reproductive-aged women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding infant-feeding practices: An experimental evaluation. Journal of Human Lactation, 26, 157-167. doi: 10.1177/0890334409352853

Falco, M. (2010). Study: Lack of breastfeeding costs lives, billions of dollars.

Hill, P. D., Aldag, J. C., Zinaman, M., & Chatterton, Jr, R. T. (2007). Comparison of milk output between breasts in pump-dependent mothers. Journal of Human Lactation, 23(), 333-337. doi:10.1177/0890334407307575

Pamela D. Hill, Ph.D., RN, CBE, FAAN, Jean C. Aldag, Ph.D., Michael Zinaman, MD, and Robert T. Chatterton Jr, Ph.D. Comparison of Milk Output Between Breasts in Pump-Dependent Mothers J Hum Lact. 23(4):333-337.

Hurley, K. M., Black, M. M., Papas, M. A., & Quigg, A. M. (2008, April). Variation in breastfeeding behaviours, perceptions, and experiences by race/ethnicity among a low-income statewide sample of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants in the United States. Maternal Child Nutrition, 4 (2), 95-105.

Jones, G., Steketee, R. W., Black, R. E., & Morris, Z. A. (2003). How many child deaths can we prevent this year? Lancet, 362, 65-71.

Kent, J. C., Ramsay, D. T., Doherty, D., Larsson, M., & Hartmann, P. E. (2003). Response of breasts to different stimulation patterns of an electric breast pump. Journal of Human Lactation, 19, 179-186. doi:10.1177%2F0890334403252473

Li, R., Fridinger, F., & Grummer-Strawn, L. (2002). Public perceptions on breastfeeding constraints. Journal of Human Lactation, 18, 227-235. doi: 10.1177/089033440201800304

Mohrbacher, N. (2011). The magic number and long-term milk production. Clinical Lactation, 2(1), 15-18.

Mossman, M., Heaman, M., Dennis, C., & Morris, M. (2008). The influence of adolescent mothers’ breastfeeding confidence and attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration. Journal of Human Lactation, 24, 268-277. doi: 10.1177/0890334408316075

Rowe-Murray, H. J., & Fisher, J. R. (2002, June). Baby friendly hospital practices: cesarean section is a persistent barrier to early initiation of breastfeeding. Birth, 29 (2), 124-131.


This post was written by Robin Allen, a member of OneOp (MFLN) Nutrition and Wellness team that aims to support the development of professionals working with military families.  Find out more about the OneOp Nutrition and Wellness concentration on our website, on Facebookon Twitterand LinkedIn.

Exclusive Breastfeeding World Health Organization